Pat, who is going on 107 years old, says she was surprised that her difficulty breathing was caused by a heart problem, not her lungs.
Norman Deschampe grew up traditionally with his family in the Grand Portage Band of Lake Superior Chippewa. He has maintained a close tie to the reservation land and its people. He has served for many years with distinction as Chairman of the Reservation Tribal Council and as President of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe. In an conversation with Jay Andersen of WTIP, North Shore Community Radio, Norman explains how the Grand Portage Band is a “sovereign nation” whose sovereignty is not bestowed but a given. He talks about the importance of the environment for tribal people, including the role that wild rice places in the society. He also explains the roles of treaties between the United States and Native American tribes as well as what those treaties mean today. He also discusses how the people of Grand Portage relate with the people of Minnesota’s Cook County, which lies right across the Reservation River from the tribal lands.